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Genki II (2nd Edition) > Chapter 21
Grammar from Chapter 21.
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Passive
1. A is done, A happens
The action is not usually directed at the subject, but has a negative/undesirable connotation.
                 
While I was playing outside it started to rain!
Passive
1. Be A-ed (Passive tense), when the action is directed at the subject.
When included, the agent of the action is marked with に
この              
This car was made ten years ago.
てある
1. Describes a state after the action A takes place.
The action was done intentionally by someone.
           ので      ように メモ しておいて  
The address is written on the postcard, so please make a note of it so you don't forget it.
1. During A
The phrase that follows is a continuous action that continues during the period/action A. This differs from に (show below), which shows a single, instantaneous action that occurs before the time frame ends.
           テレビ         
My brother was watching TV while I was cooking dinner.
くする/にする
1. To make A; To change into A.
This displays the changing of the state or condition of something. The change is done by the subject.
その       鹿     
The boy makes a fool of adults.
てほしい
1. I want (person, thing) A to B (action)
Used to describe what you want someone else to do.
この                 
I want you to take this paper to her right away.
ないでほしい
1. Want A to not B
この   タバコ             
I don't want you to smoke in this room.
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