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Polite, present form of verb A
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10
     には      
Today, I cannot attend the meeting.
3
これから            
After this we'll start studying for the test.
0
        
The students write.
0
           
Mom does not return home.
0
         
My friend does not swim.
0
        
I do not hurry.

Getting the sentences
Lesson
Verbs
You’re ready to branch out into conjugating and using other verbs!
Before we look at the rules, though, let’s talk about Japanese verbs in general.
Verb Politeness
Japanese verbs have differing levels of politeness. There are two main ones: polite, and plain/casual.
Japanese verbs have differing levels of politeness. There are two main ones: polite, and plain/casual.
These are used the majority of the time, but we’re going to focus on the polite form today.
You can’t go wrong with using polite forms, and you should stay with them until you are comfortable with casual verbs.
Good news! Unlike English, verbs do not change based on the subject. So “I”, “he”, “you”, etc. all use the same verb.
There are only 2 irregular verbs in the whole language! All other verbs follow one of two patterns.
Verb stems
Verb stems are a chunk of the verb that are used in various verb conjugations.
Verb stems are a chunk of the verb that are used in various verb conjugations.
The rules for verb stems depend on what type of verb it is, and this is most easily identified by looking at the last character of the verb.
You do not need to remember all of these now! You’ll see them again in your mastery schedule.
Additionally, you can study them under Learn > Lesson Center > Grammar.
たべたべ
あけあけ
いれいれ
There are three kinds of verbs: Ichidan (or ‘1-step’), Godan (‘5-step’), and irregular. The above, たべる, is an example of Ichidan.
There are three kinds of verbs: Ichidan (or ‘1-step’), Godan (‘5-step’), and irregular. The above, たべる, is an example of Ichidan.
The dictionary form always ends in る (but unfortunately, not all verbs that end in る are Ichidan).
They are called ‘1-step’ because it takes just one step to adjust the verb before conjugating.
All you have to do is drop the る, then you have your verb stem!
Here’s another example (to open).
And one more (to put in/insert)!
かき
あい
もち
かく (to write) is an example of a Godan verb. If a verb doesn’t end in る, it’s Godan.
かく (to write) is an example of a Godan verb. If a verb doesn’t end in る, it’s Godan.
They are called 5-step because they use all 5 ‘steps’ (vowels) during conjugation.
For verb stems, though, we just need one!
Take the last character (く, with the 'u' sound) and change it to き (with the 'i' sound).
That means verbs ending in う (u) change to い (i).
While ones with つ (tsu) change to ち (chi).
きり
As I noted earlier, there are Godan る (change る to り) verbs and Ichidan る (drop the る) verbs.
As I noted earlier, there are Godan る (change る to り) verbs and Ichidan る (drop the る) verbs.
Here, きる (to cut) is an example of a Godan る verb.
Unfortunately, there is no exact rule to remember which is which. You’ll just pick it up as you study them.
There are only two irregular verbs: する (to do), and くる (to come).
There are only two irregular verbs: する (to do), and くる (to come).
The verb stem of する is し, and the verb stem of くる is き.
Verb stem + ます
The first form is the “ます”-form, or the polite, non-past form.
The first form is the “ます”-form, or the polite, non-past form.
We say “non-past” because it can be used for present or future situations.
All you have to do is take the verb stem we learned before and add ます to it.
たべるたべます
(Ichidan)
いれるいれます
(Ichidan)
かくかきます
(Godan)
あうあいます
(Godan)
するします
(irregular)
くるきます
(irregular)
This would be (I/he/they/etc) eat/eats.
This would be (I/he/they/etc) eat/eats.
This is (I/he/she) put/puts in.
And this is write/writes.
This is meet/meets.
This is do/does.
Lastly, this is come/comes.
Verb stem + ません
たべるたべません
(Ichidan)
かくかきません
(Godan)
するしません
(irregular)
Formed the same way, ません is used to show a polite, negative verb.
Formed the same way, ません is used to show a polite, negative verb.
This would be (I/he/they/etc) don’t/doesn’t eat.
And this is don’t/doesn’t write.
Lastly, this is don't/doesn't.
わたし たべます
かれ かきます
Let’s take our AはBです sentence and swap out です for our new verbs.
Let’s take our AはBです sentence and swap out です for our new verbs.
This would be “I eat.”
And this is “He writes.”
We’ll get to adding things like direct objects, locations, etc., in the next lesson!
I know this seems like a lot, but these two verb tenses will take us a long way.
I know this seems like a lot, but these two verb tenses will take us a long way.
As I mentioned before, in addition to your mastery schedule, check out the “Verb Conjugation” quizzes under Learn > Lesson Center > Grammar.
1. Determine if it's a godan or ichidan verb
How do I determine the type of the verb?
2. Conjugating the verbs
Godan verbs
1. Change the last character from it's 'u' form to the 'i' form.
む (mu) => み (mi)
す (su) => し (shi)
う (u) => い (i)
ぬ (nu) => に (ni)
つ (tsu) => ち (chi)
ぶ (bu) => び (bi)
く (ku) => き (ki)
ぐ (gu) => ぎ (gi)
る (ru) => り (ri)
Ichidan verbs
1. Remove the る from the end of the verb.

Special cases
1a. する (to do) is changed to し.
1b. くる (to come) is changed to き.


2a. Add ます to make the positive form.
2b. Add ません to make the negative form.
Conjugation examples
Let's conjugate the godan verb く/かく (to write):
Basic Examples
Before we start: かく
1. か -> か
2a. かき -> かきます (write)
2b. かき -> かきません (don't write)

Now let's conjugate the verb べる/たべる (to eat), which is an ichidan verb:
Basic Examples
Before we start: たべる
1. たべ -> たべ
2a. たべ -> たべます (eat)
2b. たべ -> たべません (don't eat)
Where this grammar is found


User notes
0

In semi-formal/semi-polite speech, instead of verb stem + ます/ません, the plain form/negative form + っす construction can be used.
You could, for instance, use べるっす and べないっす instead of べます and べません.
This also works with state-of-being (e.g., きれいっす/きれいじゃないっす).
This construction is usually used by males but is sometimes also used by females.
2 years ago
avatar guest
-7
difficult
8 years ago
kowyinfoong - Level 1
14

There is a way to tell some of the ichidan and godan verbs apart.

If the verb ends in -る and the sound that precedes it is either あ、お、or う, then it is always a godan verb (-うverb).

(Example):

やる y/aru = godan verb (○ やります | × やます)
つまる tsum/aru = godan verb (○ つまります | × つます)

ほる h/oru = godan verb (○ のります | × のます)
のぼる nob/oru = godan verb (○ のぼります | × のぼます)

ぬる n/uru = godan verb (○ ぬります | × ぬます)
つる ts/uru = godan verb (○ つります | × つます)

If the verb ends in -る and the sound that precedes it is either い or え, then those are the ones that you have to memorize as they could either be a ichidan or godan verb.
11 years ago
avatar 宮本勝利 - Level 1

Discussion about this grammar
avatar
Years Studied: 7
Studying:
Level: 1, : 628
There is a way to tell some of the ichidan and godan verbs apart.

If the verb ends in -る and the sound that precedes it is either あ、お、or う, then it is always a godan verb (-うverb).

(Example):

やる y/aru = godan verb (○ やります | × やます)
つまる tsum/aru = godan verb (○ つまります | × つます)

ほる h/oru = godan verb (○ のります | × のます)
のぼる nob/oru = godan verb (○ のぼります | × のぼます)

ぬる n/uru = godan verb (○ ぬります | × ぬます)
つる ts/uru = godan verb (○ つります | × つます)

If the verb ends in -る and the sound that precedes it is either い or え, then those are the ones that you have to memorize as they could either be a ichidan or godan verb.

EDIT: Forgot that I could just add it to the usage note. Been so long hahah
11
11 years ago (Edited 11 years ago.)
avatar
Grammar mod. Level: 1, : 483
Never knew that, interesting!
0
11 years ago
avatar
Site admin
Level: 62, : 5,642
Thanks - I went ahead and added it into the actual explanation since it's a direct correction to information already in there.
1
11 years ago
avatar
Years Studied: 2
Studying: JLPT N3
Level: 1, : 8
are する and くる godan verbs? the vowel sound preceding る is う. Or did I misinterpret something? Call me dumb but I'm just confused since it was written under ichidan.
0
10 years ago (Edited 10 years ago.)
avatar
Site admin
Level: 62, : 5,642
する and くる are best thought of as CRAZY verbs. Or, put another way, する is its own verb type, and くる is its own verb type. They follow their own rules, and should not be grouped with anything else when it comes to usage rules.
2
10 years ago
avatar
Years Studied: 2
Studying: JLPT N3
Level: 1, : 8
ah, it makes sense now.
0
10 years ago
avatar
Years Studied: Many on and off
Studying: N2
Level: 478, : 2,213
Maybe it's just my imagination... but I realized, that verbs where the kanji is followed by two (or more) kana are ichidan. ex.: びる(の.びる) える(か.える) せる(み.せる) める(と.める) べる(た.べる) える(こた.える) れる(わす.れる) まれる(う.まれる) The potential forms of verbs, which has an e-stem, also has an ichidan conjugation: む(よ.む godan)--->める(よ.める potential, ichidan) If the kanji of a 3(or more?)-syllable verb is followed by only る it is usually godan. ex.: る(かえ.る) る(まい.る) る(すべ.る) With this only 2-syllable verbs are still troublesome.
1
9 years ago
avatar
Years Studied: since 2000
Studying: のため、だから
Level: 679, : 4,786
Unfortunately that doesn't always work. for example, with the transitive verbs that you listed, there is always an intransitive pair that goes with it that also has 2 and those verbs are not 1: so in the order you gave, ばす、わる、まる all are 5 verbs
0
9 years ago
avatar
Years Studied: Many on and off
Studying: N2
Level: 478, : 2,213
Ah... I understand what you mean, but the verbs you listed are obviously 5. I didn't think, I had to point it out since it was clearly explained in the grammar section. Only verbs that end on ~る with a preceding i-sound or e-sound syllable could technically be 1. I was referring to only this group of verbs where it is actually difficult to tell 1 verbs apart from 5 verbs. I hope I have expressed myself more clearly now.(^_^; Do you still see a problem there?
3
9 years ago



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