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test


 
To come to A
Shows a change over time

  1. To come to A
    Shows a change over time
  2. To continue A..ing, to have become A
Register or Login to study this and other grammar in the lesson て Verb Hooks!
7
わたし     ってきた     
I've gotten fat lately.
10
がっこう        より  しく なってきている 
The kanji I learn at school have gotten more difficult than before.
7
さいきん  かく なってきた  
It has become warm recently.

Getting the sentences
Construction
AVerb: て-form+くる
Examples:
おおきくなってくる (become bigger over time)

Notes
Shows a change over time.


Usages notes (by users)
9

the difference between this and ていく is when the change occurs: with てくる the change occurred in the past (and if the くる is in present tense, will keep changing); with ていく the change will be occurring in the future.
9+ years ago
avatar mysticfive - 90084 , 4335
 
To continue A..ing, to have become A

  1. To come to A
    Shows a change over time
  2. To continue A..ing, to have become A
Register or Login to study this and other grammar in the lesson て Verb Hooks!
1
この      から  ててきた ひまわり です  
This flower is a sunflower that my grandmother grew from a seed.
2
    テスト  ために     してきました  
I've studied every day for today's test.
2
        10    えてきた んです   
I taught English in Japan for ten years.

Getting the sentences
Construction
AVerb: て-form+くる
Examples:
うんどうしてくる (continue exercising)

Notes
This form is often in the past ~てきた form, as it usually describes something that has continued up until now (the present).
Related Expressions


Usages notes (by users)
No usage notes have been added. Logged-in users can add usage notes.

Discussion about this grammar
avatar
: 976, : 65
ポスト : 27, はんこ : 33
I think for the second meaning, something should be put in there about how ~てくる is usually used in the past tense, since it describes something that has been happening until now (and can be presumed that it will continue to happen in the future). The times I have seen it used in the non-past tense is if it is in a conditional sentence, ie, "If you were to become/if it was to become". It might be good to contrast it with ~ていく, which is usually in the present/future tense, as it describes something that will happen continuously from now on. Now that I think about it, maybe you should change the 2nd meaning to "To continue A-ing, to have become A" or something to that effect.
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1
10+ years ago. Edited 10+ years ago.
avatar
Site admin
: 41,223, : 3,594
ポスト : 9,893, はんこ : 139
Thanks! I went ahead and updated it. Although I've gone ahead and added it myself, you can suggest relations between other grammar terms through the Quick Info box to the right of the definition. I definitely need more help in linking up related grammar, so do check that out if you ever see others that could be linked.
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0
10+ years ago.
avatar
: 976, : 65
ポスト : 27, はんこ : 33
Yay! I'm glad I could help. Also, I just noticed that one of the model sentences for the first meaning needs a little tweaking of its English translation ^__^ "The kanji I *learn* at school *have* gotten more difficult than before."
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0
10+ years ago.
avatar
Site admin
: 41,223, : 3,594
ポスト : 9,893, はんこ : 139
Fixed it up, thanks!
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0
10+ years ago.
guest
So how is the second meaning different from ける? Or is it the same?
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0
10+ years ago.
avatar
Site admin
: 41,223, : 3,594
ポスト : 9,893, はんこ : 139
It's pretty similar. The second form is usually used in the sense of something that started in the past, and has continued to the present. Because of that, it's almost always in the past tense, where the action continues to or ends at the time the speaker says it.

I believe this differs from つづく because it usually focuses on something that continues from the present onward. In other words, while they both show an action continuing, one focuses on what's already happened, while one focuses on what's going to happen (continue).

Does that make any sense? I feel like I might not be doing the best job at describing it.
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0
10+ years ago.
guest
What would be the difference between:

よりしくなってきている。and がっこうでよりしくなっている。?

Or is it the same?
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0
8+ years ago.
guest
Actually, shouldn't the second sentence of the first meaning be "is getting" or "is becoming" rather than "have gotten" or "has become". Because る adds the meaning of a continuing action that started in the past and keeps going or something.
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0
8+ years ago.
guest
Actually, shouldn't the second sentence of the first meaning be "is getting" or "is becoming" rather than "have gotten" or "has become". Because る adds the meaning of a continuing action that started in the past and keeps going or something.
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0
8+ years ago.
avatar
Site admin
: 41,223, : 3,594
ポスト : 9,893, はんこ : 139
It doesn't necessarily need to continue onward; just for clarification, if it is in the past tense, the change has ended.

As for the second sentence, have become/gotten are present perfect (I believe that is the correct grammar term), and do refer to a present state - the kanji has gotten more difficult up through the present. I feel like is getting/becoming doesn't hold the nuance of a change over a period of time, just a present change.

As to the first comment..I am not sure I ever hear the first version used. I definitely hear the second.
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0
8+ years ago.
avatar
: 41,958, : 208
ポスト : 113, はんこ : 170
Regarding the fourth example of the first usage, べてきて doesn't show a change, but a sequence of events (eat and then come). Shouldn't it be on the second usage of て (https://www.renshuu.org/grammar/101/)?
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0
1 year ago.
avatar
Site admin
: 41,223, : 3,594
ポスト : 9,893, はんこ : 139
Thanks, fixed!
Quote
0
1 year ago.



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