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By the means/method A; by A

  1. By the means/method A; by A
  2. In accordance with A; depending on A; based on A; due/because to A
  3. For some A; certain A
    Shows that something happens/occurs in certain situations A
  4. According to A
    A is information heard from another source (i.e. newspaper, weather forecast, etc.)
Join for free or Login to study this and other grammar in the lesson Noun Suffixes II (に)!
この  ペンキ によって       
This picture was done with paint.
13
この     によって   された  
The picture was taken by him.
11
あなたの   によって その         
Your efforts resulted in the success.
11
この     によって   されました   
Who was this machine invented by?
5
この プラスチック   によって         
This plastic is not damaged by fire.
8
いなくなった       によって      
I found my lost dog by means of a notice in the paper.
4
あなた    ケン によって        
Your car was washed by Ken.

Getting the sentences
Construction
(Elements in parentheses are optional.)
ANoun
よって
Basic Examples:
がいけんによって (by appearances)

ANoun
より
Basic Examples:
きそくにより (by the rules)

Where this grammar is found


User notes
0

V+こと+によって
E.g. スパイスをれることによって、
7 years ago
Fuji - Level 1
 
In accordance with A; depending on A; based on A; due/because to A

  1. By the means/method A; by A
  2. In accordance with A; depending on A; based on A; due/because to A
  3. For some A; certain A
    Shows that something happens/occurs in certain situations A
  4. According to A
    A is information heard from another source (i.e. newspaper, weather forecast, etc.)
Join for free or Login to study this and other grammar in the lesson Noun Suffixes III!
17
   よって             
In accordance with the school rules, rings are forbidden.
10
  よって      から                いて         ください  
Since opinions vary from person to person, even if there's people who don't like your pieces of work, you shouldn't worry about it.
6
     よって          
Ways of thinking vary depending on the country and society.
8
  によって     いけない   ある  
There are prohibited foods depending on the religion.
5
アメリカ    によって       
Laws differ from state to state in the United States.
4
この          によって   された  
The city was ruined by the brutal force of nature.
5
その          による  であった  
The accident was due to careless driving.
7
その          その       よる  だった  
The rapid growth of the firm was attributed to its unique strategy.

Getting the sentences
Construction
(Elements in parentheses are optional.)
ANoun
よって
Basic Examples:
ふちゅういによって (due to carelessness)

ANoun
よる
Basic Examples:
ほうりつよる (in accordance with the law)

ANoun
よる
BNoun
Basic Examples:
りろんによるすいてい (a presumption based on speculation)

Where this grammar is found


User notes
2

This pattern is often used with words like う or いろいろ or the grammar pattern ~たり~たりする.
13 years ago
avatar Wallace - Level 1
 
For some A; certain A
Shows that something happens/occurs in certain situations A

  1. By the means/method A; by A
  2. In accordance with A; depending on A; based on A; due/because to A
  3. For some A; certain A
    Shows that something happens/occurs in certain situations A
  4. According to A
    A is information heard from another source (i.e. newspaper, weather forecast, etc.)
Join for free or Login to study this and other grammar in the lesson Noun Suffixes - に (4)!
4
     によって              する    ある  
For some patients' conditions, it is necessary to make the food small and easy to eat.
0
  によって        する   いる   あの       
Some employees can be cold to deal with, but that person is kind.
3
 によって                   
Certain countries would find the beckoning hand gestures of Japan(ese people) to be rude.

Getting the sentences
Construction
(Elements in parentheses are optional.)
ANoun
よっては
Basic Examples:
ばしょによって (for some places)

Where this grammar is found


User notes
No user notes have been added. Logged-in users can add user notes.
 
According to A
A is information heard from another source (i.e. newspaper, weather forecast, etc.)

  1. By the means/method A; by A
  2. In accordance with A; depending on A; based on A; due/because to A
  3. For some A; certain A
    Shows that something happens/occurs in certain situations A
  4. According to A
    A is information heard from another source (i.e. newspaper, weather forecast, etc.)
Join for free or Login to study this and other grammar in the lesson Noun Suffixes - に (2)!
この ほんによると    モモから       
According to this book, Momotaro was born from a peach.
4
ニュース によると      になる そう   
According to the news, it'll snow tonight.
3
 によると    になる そう です  
According to Mom it'll rain tomorrow.
4
この ナビ によれば   まで            
According to the navigation system we'll arrive in Kyoto in an hour.

Getting the sentences
Construction
(Elements in parentheses are optional.)
ANoun
よれば
Basic Examples:
せんせいによれば (according to the teacher)

ANoun
よる
Basic Examples:
しんぶんによると (according to the newspaper)

Where this grammar is found


User notes
No user notes have been added. Logged-in users can add user notes.

Discussion about this grammar
Level: 1, : 74
It seems to me that there are not three grammar points here, but rather one that should be named:

according to ‾ / depending on ‾
1
13 years ago
avatar
Site admin
Level: 105, : 6,478
Thanks, added it! Should be #4 :)
0
13 years ago
avatar
Years Studied: since 2000
Studying: のため、だから
Level: 872, : 4,945
I agree with the above user - instead of having 4 separate grammar points, they really should be rolled into one, two at the most (according to/depending on, and maybe another for 'for each')
0
12 years ago
avatar
Site admin
Level: 105, : 6,478
I'm embarrassed: I guess I completely missed the fact that he was suggesting a consolidation, not an addition. I've got to write something up that'll handle the merging so the other user sentences aren't lost, but I'll combine them today/tomorrow.
1
12 years ago
avatar
Years Studied: 3
Studying: JLPT N3 & JLPT 2
Level: 1, : 97
このポイントはしにくい! This grammar point is, in my Unicom grammar book, split into four points. Here are the constructions:

1. Noun + によって・により
2. によって(は)
3. Noun 1 + による + Noun 2
4. Noun + によると・によれば (According to)
1
12 years ago
avatar
Site admin
Level: 105, : 6,478
Ok, so let's try and organize it into each definition.

(ones on this page)

によって(は) - by, though the means of
によって,により - depending on, according to, based on, due to

(not on the page)
によると,によれば - according to (repeating information heard from elsewhere)
NによるN - ??

What's the last one, and do you agree with how I've divided them up? If so, I'll go ahead and make the changes
0
12 years ago
avatar
Years Studied: 3
Studying: JLPT N3 & JLPT 2
Level: 1, : 97
によって ・ により shows means, cause, method, or a passive agent (の)).
によっては means 「Some; for (some); certain 」(ある ‾のは)
Noun + による + Noun shows means and cause ().

によっては example sentences:

く、ところによってはるでしょう。 (Unicom)
Tomorrow it's cloudy throughout the day, with intermittent rain showers in some areas.

でも、に よっては−−えばアメリカの… (alc.co.jp)
But in certain places, like in big cities in the United States,…

「それって、もうかるの?」「うん、によってはね。」(alc.co.jp)
"Is it profitable?" "Yes, for some."
1
12 years ago (Edited 12 years ago.)
avatar
Site admin
Level: 105, : 6,478
Thanks. I'm still going to split up the 'means/method' and the 'cause' parts of によって/により because I think the definitions are different enough to split apart.

I'll clean it up now, so if it's more than 10 or 15 minutes after this message has been posted, check it out and let me know if you see any issues.

Do you have an example for NによるN?
0
12 years ago
avatar
Years Studied: 3
Studying: JLPT N3 & JLPT 2
Level: 1, : 97
Here you go:

(1) されて、トラックによるがさかんになった。
(2) によるものだったことがわかった。
(3) によるがっている。
0
12 years ago
avatar
Site admin
Level: 105, : 6,478
Thanks!
0
12 years ago
guest
I was wondering if someone could further explain the 3rd point or provide other examples? I tried looking it up in a grammar book I have and I asked my boyfriend, but I'm still a bit unclear.
0
12 years ago
avatar
Site admin
Level: 105, : 6,478
I don't have any other on hand, but do you see the message that's 4 posts above yours? (by mireille). It's got a few in there!
0
12 years ago
Level: 1, : 10
There's a big mistake in the first point: によって・により As I can see from the examples sent by users, people are now convinced you can just replace に, in a passive sentence, with によって, nothing could be more wrong. My teacher has explained to me that によって can only be used if you are creating, building, discovering, writing something that was never done before or with verbs like る, する, する, する, する and する. によって doesn't just mean "by" and can be used instead of で when it indicates what permitted a certain developmnt of a situation (quoting my teacher: いによってできる。 By discussing over it we came to a conclusion). I know it is difficult to explain.
3
10 years ago
avatar
Site admin
Level: 105, : 6,478
Thanks for the comment! What do you think about the following two sentences? によってになった。 and そのによってってしまいました. (both from a grammar dictionary) It doesn't to me that either of those fit into the rule that your teacher gave? I am very interested in fixing any mistakes on the grammar pages, so I wanted to say thanks in advance for your interest in helping!
1
10 years ago
Level: 54, : 4
Is it always necessary to combine this with the passive verb form? A lot of the examples use the passive tense but it's not part of the usage notes, so I was just wondering!
0
8 years ago



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