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A's B (shows possession)

  1. A's B (shows possession)
  2. The A one
    Used to abbreviate after a noun has already been mentioned. The の directly replaces the noun.
  3. Follows A; turning the sentence into a question (casual).
  4. A directly modifies B, B of A
    Broadly works as the preposition 'of'
  5. C which/whose A is B. C's A is B
    Used as a relative clause to describe C
  6. B who/that is a(n) A
Join for free or Login to study this and other grammar in the lesson Objects (の,で,を)!
あの ねこ  とても てき  
That cat's eyes are wonderful.
3
   パソコン     
Her computer is old.
4
あの                 
That teacher's guidance is reputed to be wonderful.
3
これ        とし  かな  
Whose hat is this? I wonder if someone lost it.

Getting the sentences
Lesson
We're going to focus on the particle の.
Its most common use is to mark possession.
That means it helps create the words "my", "your", "her", "their", etc.
わたし の
あなた の
カオちゃん の
This would be "my" ("I" + の).
This would be "my" ("I" + の).
And this is "your" ("you" + の).
You can use any noun, not just pronouns. This would be "Kao-chan's".
わたし の なまえ
It's used in front of nouns, like this!
It's used in front of nouns, like this!
You've got "I" + の + name (なまえ), which is...
"my name"!
わたし の なまえカオ です
Now, let's roll this up with the です verb we learned before.
Now, let's roll this up with the です verb we learned before.
If you recall, we used the basic AはBです, or "A is B" structure.
We know the first half is "My name", and the second part has "カオ" (a name).
So, this sentence reads "My name is Kao." (You didn't forget that my name is Kao, right?)
わたし の おとうとカオ です
カオ は わたし の おとうと です
Let's try this one. We've got わたし の おとうと (← little brother).
Let's try this one. We've got わたし の おとうと (← little brother).
The second part again contains カオ.
That leaves us with "My little brother is Kao."
Now, you can move the possessive to the 2nd half if you'd like.
Were you to translate this, it would be "Kao is my little brother."
きょう の てんき
にほんご の せんせい
There are a few other uses of の that deal with nouns and doesn't involve possession. Let's look at one of the more common ones.
There are a few other uses of の that deal with nouns and doesn't involve possession. Let's look at one of the more common ones.
For example, きょう (today) の てんき (weather) is "today's weather". This adds more information to the second noun.
This example is similar. The base noun せんせい (teacher) is changed to "Japanese teacher" when the にほんご の is added.
This one particle の can help you start to expand your writing and speaking.
This one particle の can help you start to expand your writing and speaking.
Construction
(Elements in parentheses are optional.)
ANoun
BNoun
Basic Examples:
(the teacher's bag)

Where this grammar is found


User notes
No user notes have been added. Logged-in users can add user notes.
 
The A one
Used to abbreviate after a noun has already been mentioned. The の directly replaces the noun.

  1. A's B (shows possession)
  2. The A one
    Used to abbreviate after a noun has already been mentioned. The の directly replaces the noun.
  3. Follows A; turning the sentence into a question (casual).
  4. A directly modifies B, B of A
    Broadly works as the preposition 'of'
  5. C which/whose A is B. C's A is B
    Used as a relative clause to describe C
  6. B who/that is a(n) A
Join for free or Login to study this and other grammar in the lesson Objects (の,で,を)!
0
           つもりです  
For my new shoes, I plan on buying inexpensive ones.
1
コーヒー            
For coffee, I like strong ones.

Getting the sentences
Construction
(Elements in parentheses are optional.)
Aい-adjective
 
Aな-adjective
 
 
Basic Examples:
(the cheap one)

(the clean one)

Where this grammar is found


User notes
-1

でんわは ふつなの (the phones aren't working)
8 years ago
avatar manojevu - Level 1
 
Follows A; turning the sentence into a question (casual).

  1. A's B (shows possession)
  2. The A one
    Used to abbreviate after a noun has already been mentioned. The の directly replaces the noun.
  3. Follows A; turning the sentence into a question (casual).
  4. A directly modifies B, B of A
    Broadly works as the preposition 'of'
  5. C which/whose A is B. C's A is B
    Used as a relative clause to describe C
  6. B who/that is a(n) A
Join for free or Login to study this and other grammar in the lesson Sentence Endings III!
21
ねぇ  パパ                   
Mom, dad is putting on some makeup. Is he really a woman ?
4
   その   きちんと      
Did you accurately tell Ayako about that discussion?
2
ちゃんと 宿   やった   
Did you do all your homework?
4
 みの     している   
What do you do on days off?

Getting the sentences
Construction
(Elements in parentheses are optional.)
ANoun
Basic Examples:
(is this tea?)

Aい-adjective
Basic Examples:
(are you cold?)

AVerb: Casual
Basic Examples:
どうしたの (What happened?)

Aな-adjective
Basic Examples:
(is it famous?)

Related Expressions
Where this grammar is found


User notes
0

「のです」・「のだ」is a separate entry. It's not listed at the site at the time of typing this.
2 years ago
まさむね123 - Level 1
2
「のです」・「のだ」 is the full version of the "explanatory extension."

「ん です」・「んだ」 is an extremely common spoken (and informally written) contracted variant. But, it can't be used directly after a noun, because then there wouldn't technically be a copula at the end of the sentence. So...

「なのです」・「なんです」(and 「なのだ」・「なんだ」) are used after nouns. Note that the な is actually a morphed だ, and you can see why it is used.

When asking for an explanation, obviously all of these things can have a か at the end. So something like:

アルバイトにくのですか? or (アルバイトにくんですか?)
なのですか?   or (なんですか?)

When using the casual form in a question, though, the だ drops out. Notice that in this case you cannot contract の into ん:

アルバイトにくのか?
なのか?

The above can sound somewhat abrupt (or masculine), so oftentimes people (especially, but certainly not limited to, women) will drop the か. The の is then said with the same rising intonation that the question marker か is usually given. Again, this cannot be contracted to ん:

アルバイトにくの?
なの?

This form can also be used in non-question statements, in which case there would be no rising intonation on the の:

アルバイトにくの。
なの。
10 years ago
avatar guest
 
A directly modifies B, B of A
Broadly works as the preposition 'of'

  1. A's B (shows possession)
  2. The A one
    Used to abbreviate after a noun has already been mentioned. The の directly replaces the noun.
  3. Follows A; turning the sentence into a question (casual).
  4. A directly modifies B, B of A
    Broadly works as the preposition 'of'
  5. C which/whose A is B. C's A is B
    Used as a relative clause to describe C
  6. B who/that is a(n) A
Join for free or Login to study this and other grammar in the lesson Noun suffixes II!
1
 から  メール           
I got the first email from him in awhile.

Getting the sentences
Construction
(Elements in parentheses are optional.)
ANoun
 
ANoun から/へ/で/に/まで/Etc.
 
 
BNoun
Basic Examples:
(a Japanese company)

アメリカまで (a ticket to America)

からプレゼント (a present from a friend)

あなた (a letter for you)

イベント (an event in Tokyo)

さん (a talk with Mom)

Where this grammar is found


User notes
4

Direct modification would be like 「アメリカの」 (American university), or 「のクローバー」 (four-leaf clover).

Behaving more like [of] would be like 「」 (the men of the world), or 「」 (a matter of time).

Because of this [of] meaning, depending on the situation 「の」 might actually more closely correspond to other English prepositions, like [at], [in], or [on]:

のエレベーター」 -- the elevator on the second floor (the second floor's elevator)
のテーブル」 -- the table at the park (the park's table)
のページ」 -- the pages in the book (the book's pages)

Interestingly, while in English we have two separate ways to write the above examples, in Japanese they are both expressed simply with the particle 「の」.
10 years ago
avatar guest
 
C which/whose A is B. C's A is B
Used as a relative clause to describe C

  1. A's B (shows possession)
  2. The A one
    Used to abbreviate after a noun has already been mentioned. The の directly replaces the noun.
  3. Follows A; turning the sentence into a question (casual).
  4. A directly modifies B, B of A
    Broadly works as the preposition 'of'
  5. C which/whose A is B. C's A is B
    Used as a relative clause to describe C
  6. B who/that is a(n) A
Join for free or Login to study this and other grammar in the lesson Noun suffixes II!
1
あの          です  
That person with the long hair is my younger sister.
0
                
I'm looking for clothes that are cute on a baby.

Getting the sentences
Construction
(Elements in parentheses are optional.)
ANoun Bい-adjective
 
ANoun が/の BVerb: Casual
 
 
CNoun
Basic Examples:
オレンジ (a thin-skinned orange)

Notes
The の is usually written as が if the clause is written as a standalone sentence.
Basic Examples
がいいです -> のいい
そのい ->
Where this grammar is found


User notes
No user notes have been added. Logged-in users can add user notes.
 
B who/that is a(n) A

  1. A's B (shows possession)
  2. The A one
    Used to abbreviate after a noun has already been mentioned. The の directly replaces the noun.
  3. Follows A; turning the sentence into a question (casual).
  4. A directly modifies B, B of A
    Broadly works as the preposition 'of'
  5. C which/whose A is B. C's A is B
    Used as a relative clause to describe C
  6. B who/that is a(n) A
Join for free or Login to study this and other grammar in the lesson Noun suffixes!
1
       さん           
The Prime Minster Sato lives nearby.

Getting the sentences
Construction
(Elements in parentheses are optional.)
ANoun
BNoun
Where this grammar is found


User notes
No user notes have been added. Logged-in users can add user notes.

Discussion about this grammar
Studying: JLPT 2
Level: 1, : 66
Isn't there a way to mix んですか/なんですか with the informality of の? Could I do something like this: にそんなにんだなんの? To mean "You really read a book that thick in one day?"
I am thinking ん だい is a little different but can't put my finger on why...
2
12 years ago
avatar
Years Studied: 9
Studying:
Level: 3, : 300
Aren't they just formal and informal versions of the same thing? I think of そうなの and wonder what's going on grammatically myself...
3
10 years ago (Edited 10 years ago.)
guest
「のです」・「のだ」 is the full version of the "explanatory extension." 「ん です」・「んだ」 is an extremely common spoken (and informally written) contracted variant. But, it can't be used directly after a noun, because then there wouldn't technically be a copula at the end of the sentence. So... 「なのです」・「なんです」(and 「なのだ」・「なんだ」) are used after nouns. Note that the な is actually a morphed だ, and you can see why it is used. When asking for an explanation, obviously all of these things can have a か at the end. So something like: アルバイトにくのですか? or (アルバイトにくんですか?) なのですか?   or (なんですか?) When using the casual form in a question, though, the だ drops out. Notice that in this case you cannot contract の into ん: アルバイトにくのか? なのか? The above can sound somewhat abrupt (or masculine), so oftentimes people (especially, but certainly not limited to, women) will drop the か. The の is then said with the same rising intonation that the question marker か is usually given. Again, this cannot be contracted to ん: アルバイトにくの? なの? This form can also be used in non-question statements, in which case there would be no rising intonation on the の: アルバイトにくの。 なの。
2
10 years ago
avatar
Site admin
Level: 62, : 5,638
A user noted that this page lacked all the basic usages of the particle. The most basic form..N1のN2 ..where N1 adds information to N2 - not sure how to describe that succinctly. Would love ideas. As for others, I have cross-referenced all of this, but I would love to hear if it is clear enough. 1. N1 の N2 -N1 is a general noun, N2 is usually a name of someone/something that is the same as N1 example: のけいこさん, のけんたくん 2. N1のN1 - N2's N1 (shows possession) 3. Adjective+の - used to abbreviate after the noun has been mentioned. --> いの (the red one) --> なの (the sturdy one) The big missing one is where it just..adds information. アメリカの、etc.. での
2
10 years ago
guest
{option} は
The big missing one is where it just..adds information. アメリカの、etc.. での
I think of it like this: 「の」 can either directly modify, or it can correspond to the English preposition [of]. Direct modification would be like 「アメリカの」 (American university), or 「のクローバー」 (four-leaf clover). Behaving more like [of] would be like 「」 (the men of the world), or 「」 (a matter of time). Because of this [of] meaning, depending on the situation 「の」 might actually more closely correspond to other English prepositions, like [at], [in], or [on]:のエレベーター」 -- the elevator on the second floor (the second floor's elevator) 「のテーブル」 -- the table at the park (the park's table) 「のページ」 -- the pages in the book (the book's pages) Interestingly, while in English we have two separate ways to write the above examples, in Japanese they are both expressed simply with the particle 「の」. Also, in your usage #1, 「の」 essentially equates to the relative clause forms [who is]/[that is] in English. Note that they do the same thing in both languages - modify a noun or noun clause. EDIT: Forgot to mention that 「の」 can also serve in place of the subject marker 「が」 in a modifying sentence, for example: 「のいいげた。」 -- The bright student raised his hand. I have not read anything as yet about the difference in nuance (if any), from what I have heard and seen it is more of a stylistic choice than anything, although I'm not 100% sure on that.
4
10 years ago (Edited 10 years ago.)
avatar
Years Studied: since 2000
Studying: のため、だから
Level: 676, : 4,784
valymer's usage notes are very good... another very simple one is simply "possessive" or " 's " - even when adding information, the second noun still is in some way belonging to the first...
2
10 years ago
avatar
Site admin
Level: 62, : 5,638
Ok, I have added several new meanings. I have (under your username) also moved several chunks of valymer's explanations up into the main areas as usage notes, so you retain credit.
2
10 years ago
avatar
Years Studied: since 2000
Studying: のため、だから
Level: 676, : 4,784
what about when an adjective is used after the の? For example のいい or something like that... don't remember if that's somewhere else or not, but I'd feel that would go along with the last usage
1
10 years ago (Edited 10 years ago.)
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Site admin
Level: 62, : 5,638
Does it always follow the pattern of [N]の[Adj] [N], and can it always/usually be replaced (not in that sentence, but if it were standalone, and not a modifying clause of a noun?
1
10 years ago
avatar
Years Studied: since 2000
Studying: のため、だから
Level: 676, : 4,784
it's usually in the context of a phrase that would usually take が but then the noun/adjective clause is followed by a noun, if that's what you're referring to...
2
10 years ago
avatar
Site admin
Level: 62, : 5,638
Added, stuck a few examples showing the comparison between が and の
2
10 years ago
avatar
Years Studied: 3
Studying: JLPT N3
Level: 1, : 274
For the 3rd meaning, (C which/whose A is B. C's A is B. Used as a relative clause to describe C) can you also use な-Adjs?
4
9 years ago
guest
Yes, as in this sentence I pulled off a tumblr feed: 「あなたは、と、のきれいなと、どっちがき?」
3
9 years ago
avatar
Years Studied: N/A
Studying: Kanji Kentei
Level: 2, : 629
For the grammar point "The A one" I think the なの construction for なadjectives is quite misleading as in most cases な and い-adjectives only take の. いカバンがある。ピンクのもある。(17.3 million google hits)Generally not ピンクなのもある (165k Google hits) as the grammar would suggest. I wonder if anyone has a better source than Genki 1, chapter 10 to base this on and could perhaps clarify the grammar description? :)
2
9 years ago (Edited 9 years ago.)
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Site admin
Level: 62, : 5,638
I can show that it is optional :)
2
9 years ago
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Years Studied: Many on and off
Studying: N2
Level: 475, : 2,202
What about the の that follows other particles? As in からの --- a letter from my friend までの --- a ticket to Tokyo へのプレゼント --- a present for my mother Wouldn't that belong to this topic, too? Or is it in a different section? Sorry to bother. I just got started reading through the grammar section, so I don't know if it appears somewhere else on the site.
4
9 years ago
avatar
Site admin
Level: 62, : 5,638
I would say, it falls under meaning #5 on the page. I will adjust the page today or tomorrow to reflect the additional information. Thanks! Edit: it's up!
1
9 years ago (Edited 9 years ago.)
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Years Studied: Since April '18
Level: 25, : 48
I'm trying to understand a usage of の which I can't make fit into any of the above meanings.  I saw a sentence on another site sith a structure like "です".  I would have understood that to mean "it's the ten o'clock train", where の has meaning 4 above, but the provided translation is "the train is at ten o'clock".  Is their translation incorrect, or is this a meaning that I'm just not grasping correctly?
0
3 years ago
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Site admin
Level: 62, : 5,638
I think "the 10:00 train", as you first put, is much more natural.
0
3 years ago
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Years Studied: Many on and off
Studying: N2
Level: 475, : 2,202

#4 and #5 have the same construction? Really?

Although I can imagine sth. like からのさん (= Mr. Suzuki, who is from Japan) for #5, but in case of things, how is it different from #4? I'd like to see more verified example sentences for #5, please.

0
1 year ago
avatar
Site admin
Level: 62, : 5,638

We are actually in the process of adding more model sentences to the library - we finally have time now that the asset production for adventure mode is done for a couple of months.

#5 jumped down to #6, but it is fixed. The data was right, but it was getting mixed up. #6 should only be A の B.

Here's how to think of #6 - Both A and B are the same thing. Doctor + person, pikachu + pokemon, etc. #4 is broader in its usage.

1
1 year ago
avatar
Level: 610, : 251

It's called apposition, where you have two nouns phrases referring to the same object.

It's usually used either to help uniquely identify it:

* My house, the second one from the left, is up for sale.

* I'm here today with one of my attorneys, Mark Frisby.

Or to provide more information about it, such as clarification, context or explanation:

* Aldebaran, the brightest star in the Taurus constellation, is a red giant.

* A defender of maidens everywhere, Sir Gawain came to her rescue.

In your example, 'who is from Japan' isn't a noun, but a relative clause.

Compare that with: Mr. Suzuki, the Japanese prime minister = さん

Since they're both descriptions of the same person, there's no need to modify their relationship with words like 'from' or 'in', as in usage #4.

1
1 year ago
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Years Studied: ???
Studying: JLPT N2/N1 -------- 41 Games Completed in Japanese
Level: 110, : 333

Usage 5 is missing something, example from this greatbow item description text from DarkSouls 1:

h0smcd5aef0qatuy7cveqjbgk.png

ゴーいた (の)
The construction under 5 doesn't mention that verbs can be used
Also correct me if I'm wrong, but I think that grammar point should mention that in the first particle spot の/が are interchangeable, I think that

ゴーいた (の)
would still be correct

0
11 months ago (Edited 11 months ago.)
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Site admin
Level: 62, : 5,638

Your explanation sounds correct to me, but let me check on it first before I make any updates!

1
11 months ago
avatar
Site admin
Level: 62, : 5,638

I added it! Not sure if the definition should be adjusted without making it overly complicated in meaning.

1
11 months ago
avatar
Years Studied: ???
Studying: JLPT N2/N1 -------- 41 Games Completed in Japanese
Level: 110, : 333

Just found something else missing about の, though is more like のだ/のです so maybe it needs its own entry.
example sentence:

べるんだ="eat it"

As a native explained it to me:
a command, but the feeling is, "this is what you do, this is what is expected of you now"

someone else (non-native) explained it as "it's a command, kind of.. it's more like it's saying what the expectation is and then indirectly telling the listener to follow that expectation"

It's curious I didn't find this grammar point in most resources... unless I've been searching wrong...
but in this link https://www.tomojuku.com/blog/... under usage 5 it mentions the "" usage, even though is only one example sentence.

2
10 months ago (Edited 10 months ago.)
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Site admin
Level: 62, : 5,638

I'll need to find some time to gather some more information on this, but what an interesting usage!

0
10 months ago
avatar
Years Studied: ???
Studying: JLPT N2/N1 -------- 41 Games Completed in Japanese
Level: 110, : 333

I ended up bumping into it because of this line from a game: https://i.imgur.com/04NmehD.png (entire conversation here -> https://youtu.be/BVBx6jQtwUo?t=4542 with that line at 1:15:42) and I wasn't sure if するのよ was acting like a volitional (しよう) or like a potential (できる) or like something else, so someone suggested it might have been actually closer to のだ. But all of this needs verification indeed

Some more information at this page titled https://niwasaburoo.amebaownd.... , scroll down to "34.6 /ナイ(+のだ)"
But from other pages I'm seeying that のだ has at least 3 frequent different usages

On another note, I think this page is lacking the usage of "explanatory の" , which might be related to のだ, this page for example https://www.jpf.go.jp/j/projec... categorizes it as のだ but I think that should only be "の" the same way Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar has it at page 322

DoBJG actually says at page 324 "The sentence-final の is derived from のだ/のです through deletion of だ/です."
Therefore I correct my previous statement, probably "explanatory-no" usage should go in a separate pages with the のだ usages

0
10 months ago (Edited 10 months ago.)



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